Пассивный залог в английском языке, примеры и упражнения

Пассивный залог в английском языке, примеры и упражнения

Функции пассивного залога

Пассивный залог используется для выражения интереса к человеку или объекту, которые испытывают на себе действие, нежели к действию, которое производят этот человеком или объект. Другими словами, предмет интереса или интересующий нас человек становятся подлежащими предложения.

ПРИМЕРЫ

  • The passive voice is used frequently. (= нам интересен пассивный залог, а не тот, кто его использует.)
  • The house was built in 1654. (= мы заинтересованы в самом доме, а не в том, кто его построил.)
  • The road is being repaired. (= нас интересует дорога, а не те, кто её ремонтируют.)
Отметим! Иногда мы используем пассивный залог, потому что не знаем, или нам не важно, кто совершил действие.

ПРИМЕРЫ

  • I noticed that a window had been left open.
  • Every year thousands of people are killed on our roads.
  • All the cookies have been eaten.
  • My car has been stolen!

Пассивный залог часто используется в официальных текстах. Изменение пассивного залога на активный сразу сделает вашу речь понятной и более доступной на письме.

Пассивный залог Активный залог
A great deal of meaning is conveyed by a few well-chosen words. A few well-chosen words convey a great deal of meaning.
Our planet is wrapped in a mass of gases. A mass of gases wrap around our planet.
Waste materials are disposed of in a variety of ways. The city disposes of waste materials in a variety of ways.

 

Если мы хотим сказать, что действие совершается кем-то или чем-то, и использовать при этом пассивный залог, мы добавляем предлог by. Когда мы знаем, кто произвёл действие и заинтересованы в этом человеке, всегда лучше использовать активный залог вместо пассивного.

Пассивный залог Активный залог
«A Hard Day’s Night» was written by the Beatles. The Beatles wrote «A Hard Day’s Night».
The movie ET was directed by Spielberg. Spielberg directed the movie ET.
This house was built by my father. My father built this house.

Упражнения с ответами

Exercise 1.  Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present Simple Passive. (USUALLY)

  1. The postbox (to empty) every day.
  2.  The stamps (to postmark) at the post office.
  3. The letters (to sort) into the different towns.
  4. The mail (to load) into the train.
  5. The mailbags (to unload) after their journey.
  6. The bags (to take) to the post office.
  7. The letters (to sort) into the different streets.
  8. The letters (to deliver).
Посмотреть ответы:
1. is emptied

2. are postmarked.

3. are sorted.

4. is loaded.

5. are unloaded.

6. are taken.

7. are sorted.

8. are delivered.

Exercise 2. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Past Simple Passive. (YESTERDAY)

  1.  The postbox (to empty) yesterday.
  2. The stamps (to postmark) at the post office.
  3. The letters (to sort) into the different towns.
  4. The mail (to load) into the train.
  5. The mailbags (to unload) after their journey.
  6.  The bags (to take) to the post office.
  7. The letters (to sort) into the different streets.
  8. The letters (to deliver).
Посмотреть ответы:
1. was emptied.

2. were postmarked.

3. were sorted.

4. was loaded.

5. were unloaded.

6. were taken.

7. were sorted.

8. were delivered

Exercise 3. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Future Simple Passive. (TOMORROW)

  1.  The postbox (to empty) tomorrow.
  2. The stamps (to postmark) at the post office.
  3. The letters (to sort) into the different towns.
  4. The mail (to load) into the train.
  5. The mailbags (to unload) after their journey.
  6. The bags (to take) to the postoffice.
  7. The letters (to sort) into the different streets.
  8.  The letters (to deliever).
Посмотреть ответы:
1. will be emptied.

2. will be postmarked.

3. will be sorted.

4. will be loaded.

5. will be unloaded.

6. will be taken.

7. will be sorted.

8. will be delivered.

Exercise 4. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present, Past или Future Simple Passive.

  1. My question (to answer) yesterday.
  2. Hockey (to play) in winter.
  3. Mushrooms (to gather) in autumn.
  4. Many houses (to burn) during the Great Fire of London.
  5. His new book (to finish) next year.
  6. Flowers (to sell) in shops and in the streets.
  7. St. Petersburg (to found) in 1703.
  8. Bread (to eat) every day.
  9. The letter (to receive) yesterday.
  10. Nick (to send) to Moscow next week.
  11. I (to ask) at the lesson yesterday.
  12. I (to give) a very interest ing book at the library last Friday.
  13. Many houses (to build) in our town every year.
  14. This work (to do) tomorrow.
  15.  This text (to translate) at the last lesson.
  16. These trees (to plant) last autumn.
  17. Many interesting games always (to play) at our PT lessons.
  18. This bone (to give) to my dog tomorrow.
  19. We (to invite) to a concert last Saturday.
  20. Lost time never (to find) again.
  21. Rome (not to build) in a day.
Посмотреть ответы:
1. was answered.

2. is played.

3. are gathered.

4. were burnt.

5. will be finished.

6. are sold.

7. was founded.

8. is eaten.

9. was received.

10. will be sent.

11. was asked.

12. was given.

13. are built.

14. will be done.

15. was translated.

16. were planted.

17. are always played.

18. will be given.

19. were invited.

20. is never found.

21. was not built.

Exercise 5. Раскройте скобки, выбирая требующуюся форму глагола.

  1.  At the station they will (meet, be met) by a man from the travel bureau.
  2.  She will (meet, be met) them in the hall upstairs.
  3.  The porter will (bring, be brought) your luggage to your room.
  4. Your luggage will (bring, be brought) up in the lift.
  5.  You may (leave, be left) your hat and coat in the cloakroom downstairs.
  6.  They can (leave, be left) the key with the clerk downstairs.
  7.  From the station they will (take, be taken) straight to the hotel.
  8.  Tomorrow he will (take, be taken) them to the Russian Museum.
Посмотреть ответы:
1. will be met.

2. will meet.

3. will bring.

4. will be brought.

5. may leave.

6. can leave.

7. will be taken.

8. will take.

Сочинение на тему 8 марта с переводом

Exercise 6. Передайте следующие предложения в Passive Voice, обращая внимание на место предлога.

E.g. We often speak of her. — She is often spoken of.

  1.  The senior students laughed at the freshman.
  2.  The group spoke to the headmistress yesterday.
  3.  Young mothers looked after their babies with great care.
  4.  Nobody lived in that old house.
  5.  They sent for Jim and told him to prepare a report on that subject.
  6.  We thought about our friend all the time.
  7.  The doctor will operate on him in a week.
  8.  The teacher sent for the pupil’s parents.
  9.  They looked for the newspaper everywhere.
  10.  Nobody slept in the bed.
  11. The neighbour asked for the telegram.
  12.  Everybody listened to the lecturer with great attention.
Посмотреть ответы:
1. The freshman was laughed at.

2. The headmistress was spoken to yesterday.

3. The babies were looked after with great care.

4. That old house was not lived in.

5. Jim was sent for and told to prepare a report on that subject.

6. Our friend was thought about all the time.

7. He will be operated on in a week.

8. The pupil’s parents were sent for.

9. The newspaper was looked for everywhere.

10. The bed was not slept in.

11. The telegram was asked for.

12. The lecturer was listened to with great attention.

Exercise 7. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Active Voice или Passive Voice.

  1.  Nobody (to see) him yesterday.
  2.  The telegram (to receive) tomorrow.
  3.  He (to give) me this book next week.
  4.  The answer to this question can (to find) in the encyclopedia.
  5.  We (to show) the historical monuments of the capital to the delegation tomorrow.
  6.  You can (to find) interesting information about the life in the USA in this book.
  7.  Budapest (to divide) by the Danube into two parts: Buda and Pest.
  8.  Yuri Dolgoruki (to found) Moscow in 1147.
  9.  Moscow University (to found) by Lomonosov.
  10.  We (to call) Zhukovski the father of Russian aviation.
Посмотреть ответы:
1. saw.

2. will be received.

3. will give.

4. be found.

5. shall show.

6. find.

7. is divided.

8. founded.

9. was founded.

10. call.

Exercise 8. Передайте следующие предложения в Passive Voice.

  1.  Не stole a lot of money from the shop.
  2.  By six o’clock they had finished the work.
  3.  At twelve o’clock the workers were loading the trucks.
  4.  By three o’clock the workers had loaded the trucks.
  5.  We send our daughter to rest in the south every year.
  6.  They will show this film on TV.
  7.  They are building a new concert hall in our street.
  8. I bought potatoes yesterday.
  9.  We shall bring the books to￾morrow.
  10.  They are repairing the clock now.
  11.  They sell milk in this shop.
  12.  I have translated the whole text.
  13.  They broke the window last week.
  14. When I came home, they had eaten the sweets.
  15. We shall do the work in the evening.
  16.  He wrote this book in the 19th century.
  17. They were playing tennis from four till five.
  18.  They have made a number of important experiments in this laboratory.
  19. Livingstone explored Central Africa in the 19th century.
  20.  By the middle of autumn we had planted all the trees.
  21.  They will stage this play at the beginning of next season.
  22.  They have forgotten the story.
  23.  Has anybody explained the rules of the game to you?
  24.  They haven’t brought back my skates.
Посмотреть ответы:
1. A lot of money was stolen from the shop.

2. By six o’clock the work had been finished.

3. At twelve o’clock the trucks were being loaded.

4. By three o’clock the trucks had been loaded.

5. Our daughter is sent to rest in the south every year.

6. This film will be shown on TV.

7. A new concert hall is being built in our street.

8. Potatoes were bought yesterday.

9. The books will be brought tomorrow.

10. The clock is being repaired now.

11. Milk is sold in this shop.

12. The whole text has been translated..

13. The window was broken last week.

14. When I came home, the sweets had been eaten.

15. The work will be done in the evening.

16. This book was written in the 19th century.

17. Tennis was being played.from four till five.

18. The number of important experiments K-we been made in this laboratory.

19. Central Africa was explored by Livingstone in the 19th century.

20. By the middle of autumn all the trees had been planted.

21. This play will be staged at the beginning of next season.

22. The story has been forgotten.

23. Have the rules of the game been explained to you?

24. My skates haven’t been brought back.

Irregular verbs - таблица неправильных глаголов с переводом

Exercise 9. Передайте следующие предложения в Active Voice. Введите любые подходящие подлежащие.

  1. The room was cleaned and aired.
  2. Have all these books been read?
  3.  Whom were these letters written by?
  4.  The letter has just been typed.
  5.  She showed me the picture which had been painted by her husband.
  6. I shall not be allowed to go there.
  7.  He has been told everything, so he knows what to do now.
  8.  All the questions must be answered.
  9.  The door has been left open.
  10.  Betty was met atthe station.
  11. The girl was not allowed to go to the concert.
  12.  She said that the new timetable had not yet been hung up on the notice board.
  13.  The roast chicken was eaten with appetite.
  14.  It was so dark, that the houses could not be seen.
  15. The light has not yet been turned off.
  16.  The boy was punished for misbehaving.
  17. By three o’clock eve rything had been prepared.
  18.  The dictation was written without mistakes.
  19.  Whom was the poem written by?
  20.  Her dress was washed and ironed.
  21.  I was not blamed for the mistakes.
  22.  The papers had been looked through and corrected by the next lesson.
  23.  This house was built last year.
  24. The letter has just been sent.
  25.  This article will be translated at the lesson on Tuesday.
  26.  When will this book be returned to the library?
Посмотреть ответы:
1. She cleaned and aired the room.

2. Have you read all these books?

3. Who wrote these letters?

4.The secretary has just typed the letter.

5. She showed me the picture which her husband had painted.

6. My parents will not allow me to go there.

7. We have told him everything so he knows what to do.

8. You must answer all the questions.

9. They have left the door open.

10. We met Betty at the station.

II. The girl’s mother did not allow her to go to the concert.

12. She said that they had not yet hung up the new timetable on the notice board.

13. We ate the chicken with appetite.

14. It was so dark that we could not see the houses.

15. They have not yet turned off the light.

16. She punished the boy for misbehaving.

17. By three o’clock we had prepared everything.

18. We wrote the dictation without mistakes.

19. Who wrote the poem?

20. She washed and ironed her dress.

21. They did not blame me for the mistakes.

22. The teacher had looked through and corrected the papers by the next lesson.

23.They built this house last year.

24. We have just sent the letter.

25. We shall translate this article at the lesson on Tuesday.

26. When will you return this book to the library?

Exercise 10. Переведите на английский язык, употребляя глаголы в Passive Voice.

  1. Нам показали очень странную картину.
  2. Тебя ищут. Иди домой.
  3. Вас всех пригласят в зал и расскажут обо всех изменениях в школьной программе.
  4.  Почему над ним всегда смеются?
  5. Нам всем дали билеты на выставку.
  6. Лекции этого знаменитого профессора всегда слушают с большим вниманием.
  7.  Меня ждут?
  8.  Им задали три трудных вопроса.
  9.  За директором уже послали. Подождите немного.
  10.  Всех пригласили в большой зал.
  11.  Эти письма просмотрены. Их можно отправлять.
  12.  На станции их встретил гид и отвез в гостиницу.
  13.  Эти журналы должны быть возвращены в библиотеку на следующей неделе.
  14. На наших занятиях много внимания уделяется произношению.
  15.  Иванову велели объяснить, почему он пропускает занятия.
  16.  Меня пригласят на ваш вечер?
  17. Детей оставили дома одних.
Посмотреть ответы:
1. We were shown a very strange picture.

2. You are being looked for. Go home.

3. All of you will be gathered in the hall and told about all the changes in the school curriculum.

4. Why is he always laughed at?

5. All of us were given tickets to the exhibition.

6. The lectures of this famous professor are always listened to with great attention.

7. Am I being waited for?

8. They were asked three difficult questions.

9. The headmaster has already been sent for. Please wait a little.

10. Everybody was invited to a big hall.

11. These letters have been looked through. They can be sent.

12. At the station they were met by the guide and taken to the hotel.

13. These magazines must be returned to the library next week.

14. At our lessons much attention is paid to pronunciation.

15. Ivanov was told to explain why he missed classes.

16. Shall I be invited to your party?

17. The children were left alone at home.

Источник: https://engfairy.com/passivnyj-zalog-uprazhneniya/

Источник: https://www.ef.ru/angliyskie-resursy/angliyskaya-grammatika/passivnyy-zalog/

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